Adapter card or
is an electronic circuit board which slots in to the system board slots. The
function of an adapter is to connect peripherals (video, sound, network) to the
system board expanding the functionality of your system. This card can be
referred to as the expansion or interface card.
is a central directory used by windows 2000 containing all information regarding
all items on the network. This directory is continuously updating with the use
of the DNS servers and is shared among the domain controllers on the network.
Access method or Contention method
set of rules used by the network in communication. The main access methods are
CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA, Token ring etc.
to Digital Converter)
chip used inside modems and sound cards responsible for converting analogue
signal to digital signals to be used by the computer.
is a single fast expansion slot on most ATX boards designed exclusively for the
software program designed to facilitate a particular task on your computer e.g.
Brower, MS office.
(Address Resolution Protocol)
is hardware broadcast table of information generated on each machine in a TCPIP
LAN network containing the system IP address and its physical card hardware
A program designed to detect and exterminate computer viruses. Examples
of anti virus programs include. Norton anti virus, McAfee, etc.
(American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
universal standard defining all characters used on a computer with numbers.
universal standard of commands designed by Hayes to configure modems.
are four separate configurable attributes that are read only, Hidden, System,
and Archive used by the FAT filling system of DOS and windows.
and ATX Motherboard
is the older 286 to Pentium motherboard standard. ATX is designed for Pentium II
motherboards and above. AT stands for Advanced Technology and ATX stands for
Advanced Technology extended.
is the batch file automatically loaded during the boot process.
set of coded messages that your system will sound if it cannot boot-up or show a
login process before accessing the resources of the network.
duplicate your current files to a backup medium, e.g. tape, CD, Zip.
program or hardware is compatible with the older versions of the same product.
is the number of bits of data transmitted per second
(bps) by modems. e.g. 56Kb/s
(Backup Domain Controller)
on a Windows NT domain network. The BDC is designed to help the PDC in the
authentication process and sharing the load on the network. There can exist an
unlimited number of BDCís on a
domain receiving a read only copy of the SAM Security Accounts Manager from the
PDC every 5 minutes.
numbering system used by computer that is dealing with base 2 using the numbers
bits 1 and 0.
(Basic Input Output System)
all the limitations of your computer. The BIOS contains a firmware of the POST,
boot instructions etc.
boot files that enable the disk to boot up from the floppy. Usually used to
recover a failed system.
program designed to navigate the internet and to translate and view the HTML
coded site pages.
buffer can be thought of as regions in memory reserved for frequently used data.
The buffer command is used in the config.sys file reducing hard drive
interaction and increasing system performance.
is a group of wires acting as a communication highway connecting the whole
that have this feature are intelligent and can take momentary control of the
system busses effectively bypassing the processor when communicating to the
The network layout
where all the computers are connected together on a single backbone cable.
byte contains 8 bits of data which is 1 and 0ís.
is very fast Static RAM used inside the processor L1 and outside the processor
CD or CD-ROM
or CD-ROM stands for Compact disk that can store up to 700MB of data. CD-ROM
stands for Compact Disk-Read-Only Memory. CDís are read only and require a
CD-ROM drive to access the data stored on the CD.
for one tome recording on a CD ROM
for re writing on a re-Writable CD ROM
Intel processor for the cheaper market. This processor contains less cache.
standard set by different manufacturers to the system motherboard defining its
properties and limitations. The different chipsets include VIA, Intel, SIS etc
(Complex Instruction Set Computing)
standard processor for IBM compatible PC executing large instructions slowly.
The other processor standard is the RISC processor.
smallest unit of data storage on a hard drive containing sectors.
(Complementary Metal Oxide Semi-conductor)
all system current setting including time and date. CMOS requires a battery to
the system is restarted using the power on button.
for serial slow communication between the computer and other devices such as the
mouse and modem.
file contains all your current hardware configurable setting such as memory. I
is loaded during the boot process.
term used for writing data on a the hard drive which means placing data next to
each other .
region between 0K and 640K used by DOS for running all programs.
(Central Processing Unit)
is the central component of the processor designed for handling all processing
(Cathode Ray Tube)
is the tube within a monitor responsible for producing a display.
CSMA/CD(Carrier Sense Multiple
Access with Collision Detection)
The standard access
method used in Ethernet networks such as bus and star topologies.
series of tracks placed on each plate inside the hard drive.
quantity of data that the processor can process on each clock beat. The size of
the data path is determined by the processor.
line requires no dialing because it provides your computer an exclusive route to
the Internet which is up all the time.
(Digital to analogue Converter)
chip used in modem and soundcards to convert the systems digital signals to
analogue data ready for transmission
is the route used by your LAN to access the WAN. This is the LAN router.
related data in contagious block improving hard drive performance.
is the software which enables the operating system to communicate with a
hardware. E.g. printer, modem.
component of the control panel which allow you to view the current system
configuration and change it.
Double data rate)
special RAM module used un Pentium 4 systems supported by VIA
(Dynamic Host Configuration protocol)
by server to allocate a number to all computer in a LAN from a pool of numbers.
is software to dial up and facilitate the communication of two computers using
your telephone line and modem. DUN is generally used to access your ISP to
connect to the internet.
(Dual In-line Memory Module)
modules containing many RAM chip. DIMM come in sizes up to 256MB and can
communicate using a 64bits data bus.
Switch (Dual in-line Packet Switch)
switch which is used on system boards and expansion cards to configure the
new feature added to windows 2000 that limits the users disk space usage.
(dynamic link library)
series of simple programs inside windows that
interact with each other activating a larger program.
Channel (Direct Memory Access)
direct line of communication between the interface device and RAM without the
involvement of the CPU. Devices
supporting DMA are generally much faster and expensive.
(Domain Name System)
DNS server contains a database of computer names and IP addresses.
groping of servers and clients in the Microsoft client/server networking
environment containing a centralized Security Accounts Management (SAM).
printer that uses impacting pins to generate the image on the paper. comes in
9pin, 18 pin and 24 pin designs.
(Dot Per Inch)
measure of the resolution of a peripheral which is the number of dots that can
be fitted in to a square inch. Usually used as a measure on printers an
(Digital Serial line)
dedicated line which can transmit data at very high rate, now available for home
memory type that requires a refresh pulse and is slower and cheaper then SRAM.
new feature added to windows 2000 making the hard drive more secure and
new storage medium which can store up to 18 GB of data and is primarily used for
(Extended Standard Industry Architecture)
rival expansion slot to MCA providing 32bit data transfer at 20Mhz.
program that simulates expanded memory used in the memory optimization process.
environment of communication using the CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access
with Collision Detection) contention/access method within a bus or star
(Electro Magnetic Interference)
interference created by a magnetic field which can cause data loss on a hard
drive and other problems which is recoverable.
(Emergency Repair Disk)
disk that needs to be created within windows NT/2000 used in the operating
(Electro Static Discharge)
static discharge which can cause a non recoverable hardware failure.
partition created by the hard drive that contains logical drives.
component within the administrative tools which logs all system information used
by windows NT/2000.
slots located in the system motherboard acting as a medium between the CPU and
the expansion cards. They include ISA, EISA, MCA, AGP,VESA, and PCI.
(Error Checking and Correction)
An advanced for of
error checking that can correct errors used in the system memory.
A fast design of
RAM SIMMs usually used on 486 and Pentium Isystems
(File Allocation Table)
typical filing system used by DOS.
typical filling system used by windows 98 that is efficient and can extend to
terabytes in size.
option made available to recover your system incase of a hardware failure.
is a file used in DOS to create and remove partitions.
3-character extension of a file defines the file type. E.g. exe, bat, dat.
name defines the file and is set by the user.
is a device which act as a medium between your internal LAN and the internet.
is the 1394 fast communication for used for transferring video information.
software installed on a ROM chip, e.g. BIOS
new communication medium that uses flexible class to transmit light signals in a
replacement chip for the ROM that can be overwritten.
storage medium and drive used primarily for transferring data which can store
1.44MB of data.
container for files and other folder on your storage medium.
(Floating Point Unit)
are special calculations that require a math co-processor.
(File Transfer Protocol)
TCP/IP protocol that is used for transferring files and folders.
(Graphical User Interface).
intelligent usage of the mouse and display that makes working on computers
networking device that can overcome networking barriers such as topology and
number of used which perform similar task and require similar security access to
the system can be placed in a group.
primary storage device used to store the system operating system and
base 16 numbering system used by us not to mistake between the one and zeroís
in the binary system.
(High memory area)
first 64 KB above 1M in the memory map.
file that makes the memory above 1M available which are extended memory.
(Hyper Text Markup Language)
is the special language used to generate web pages that can be interpreted by a
(Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)
method used to transfer web pages from the internet server to your browser.
(Hardware Compatibility List)
list of hardware tested and support by Microsoft.
block of metal fin used to cool down the chips within the computer.
device that can be installed on the computer without rebooting the system e.g.
device used in the Star topology to connect all the networked computers.
(Integrated Drive Electronics)
standard setup for storage devices which places two drive on one cable. The
first drive is master and the other is the slave.
of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
A body that
oversees any improvements made in the computing industry.
A server used
by windows NT to host a web site.
standard instruction set used by CPU. There are two main instruction sets RISC
the monitor cannot repaint a screen in one burst but draws it is section which
may apper as flickers.
Internal DOS commands
most commonly used commands of DOS inside the Command.com file .
speed of the clock in the processor.
worlds larges WAN sometimes referred to as the WEB
internal web site used within the boundaries of a company for private use only.
location in memory where data can be transferred between an interface device and
an identification number for all the nodes with a TCP/IP network.
called the dotted quad, an IP address is a 32-bit address consisting of 4
sections called octets that are separated by dots.
For example: 192.168.122.67
(Internet work Packet Exchange)
communication protocol used by Novell networks
unique identification number issued to different devices on a network.
(Industry Standard Architecture)
interface for cards with a 8bit or 16bit communication path.
(Internet Service Provider)
organization providing you with a means of connecting to the internet.
fast digital communication line used in the Internet.
or K or kilobyte
1000 bytes of data.
core component of an operating system
new authentication protocol used in windows 2000
L1 or Internal cache
fast SRAM used inside the processor.
L2 or External cache
fast SRAM used external to the CPU
(Local Area Network)
bunch of computer networked together within the same location.
LBA Large Block Access
efficient way of utilizing the space on the sectors of the hard drive.
(Liquid Crystal Display)
new expensive technology using a mesh grid and liquid crystal with a display
system. This technology is used predominantly on notebook display because of its
Last Known Good Configuration
last time the system booted up without any problems.
hardware that new systems must accommodate because of backwards compatibility.
LFN (Long File
ability of windows 9x to store files with names as long as 255 characters using
25-pin bi-directional parallel communication port usually used for printing
default desktop profile stored on your local computer.
profile that is force by the system administrator for all network users.
Hub used in the ring topology.
MB or megabyte
to 1024 KB
(Master Boot Record)
location on the hard drive which stores the boot files windows 9x.
(Micro Channel Architecture)
expansion medium designed by IBM
1 million Hz frequency which is the unit of measuring processor speed.
Mirror Set (RAID
redundancy method used by windows NT/2000 that allows for a duplicate drive to
exist of the original drive.
miniature circuit boards that have the memory chips soldered on them.
application server within a windows NT domain.
program used by DOS to optimize the memory
(Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
uniform format of passing data between different applications
device used to communicate on the internet through the telephone line by using
conversion process of digital data to analogue data.
display device connected to the VGA card on your Computer.
electronic board on the system where the system CPU and memory is located. This
board is sometimes referred to as the planer board, system board.
pointing device that is used to maneuver around a GUI environment, which allows
icons to be selected by just clicking on the buttons.
new tool inside windows 2000 that eases administrative tasks.
is the primitive DOS anti virus program
is the Microsoft backup program used for backing up data on your computer.
a route for to access the CD-ROM drive.
MS-DOS or DOS (Disk Operating
first command based operating system produced by Microsoft.
components of the DOS Kernel which controls access to the hard drive.
environment allows for multiple applications to be active simultaneously.
hardware components of your system which contribute the graphical and audio
device used to measure current , voltage and resistance.
(NetBIOS Extended User Interface)
communication protocol used for small networks that is non-routable.
is a communication protocol used on small LANs by applications.
process of connecting two or more computers together by some media (a physical
cable or a wireless connection) running specialized software, which allows the
computers to communicate with each other.
internet feature which act as a bulletin board
display technology that redraws the screen in one burst.
new secure filing system used by windows NT/2000
is the initial boot file of windows NT
Model (Open System Interconnection)
7 layers that provide a framework for communication of dissimilar networking
Microsoft user tool for creating and view emails.
increase the system clock speed beyond its design specifications.
use of the hard drive as RAM sometimes referred to as virtual memory.
is a 64kb region in the UMB used by the device ROM chips called shadow RAM.
25 pin female port located at the back of your PC which is usually connected to
use of a bit of data for checking 1 bit errors in a byte of data. The are two
forms of parity , odd and even parity.
region defined on the hard dive for placing within.
route or map to a directory through the tree structure of directories and sub
(Peripheral Component Interconnection)
white 32/64bit universal expansion slot used on Pentium and above systems.
card (Personal Computer Memory Card Industry Association)
standard of expansion used on laptop and notebook systems which has 3 types,
(Primary Domain Controller)
first server active in a windows NT domain that contains the original editable
Security Accounts Manager (SAM).
LAN environment with no dedicated server. The peer to peer environment of
Microsoft include windows 95/98/NT/2000.
new line of processors that was produced after the 486 processor. These
processors include Pentium 1ŗPentium
device connected to computers that performs a dedicated task and interacts with
the user. These devices include keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer etc.
PGA (Pin Grid
new standard of chip design which has an array of pins beneath it.
Plug and Play or PnP
and play is the interaction of computer hardware, operating system, and BIOS
that enables devices to be detected and configured automatically.
POP3 Post Office Protocol
is the protocol used to download e-mails through the Internet from an email
server supporting pop3. The client side tools which support pop3 protocol
include Ms outlook, outlook express Eudora etc.
communication source on a computer which allows interaction with a peripheral.
system such as laptop and notebook computers.
(Power On Self Test)
diagnostic program designed to test all system hardware located on the BIOS ROM
Power supply unit PSU
device that convert the AC mains power supply to the DC power required by you
internet protocol providing limited security from your home to the ISP
output device producing a copy of the data on paper.
mode was introduced for the AT system using memory above 1MB.
set of communication rules used on a network sometimes referred as the language
PWS (Personal Web
Internet server software designed for testing purposes to be used on a client
(Redundant Array of Independent Disks)
technology that involves using multiple disks containing the same information,
which can be used in the recovery of data, incase of a hardware problem.
method of using a modems to connect to and from a windows NT computer.
(Random Access Memory)
is fast memory that can be used as work space. All data is lost from the RAM
when the power is switched off.
new memory design for the P4 processors backed by Intell.
time required to redraw the image on the screen of a monitor. If the refresh
rate is too slow the screen will seem to be flickering.
program used in Windows NT to create the ERD
registry editor of windows that can
be used to view and edit the active system registry. Regedit can be used by
windows 95/98/NT/2000. Regedt32 can only be used by windows NT/2000.
A tool used in
windows98 to automatically backup the registry and restore the backed up
registry in case of corruption.
command of DOS generally used in a batch file. This command is a remark and
tells the system to ignore the rest of the text on the line.
is a measure of the quality of an image which is the number of dot that can be
fitted in a square inch.
network of computers connected together in a loop using an MAU (Multi access
unit). This topology employs the token ring access method.
(Reduced Instruction Set Computing)
is a standard processor design that performs small instructions very quickly.
This processor design is generally used by non-IBM compatible systems that are
Roaming user profile
changeable user profile that exists on the server in a Windows NT domain
information on a ROM chip is burnt in the factory and not lost when the power is
highest level on the directory structure which is the drive letter. C:, D:, E:,
mass installation server which installs only windows professional
program scans the hard drive for bad sectors and either fixes the bad sector or
marks it as bad so that there is no data loss.
platform universal standard of intelligent peripherals that follow a set group
of rules called the skuzzy rules.
site on the internet which contains a database of all known internet site making
the users search on the internet far easier.
region that divides your hard drive plates containing data.
port on the computer responsible for transmitting asynchronous data. These ports
are 9 pin male ports referred to as COM1, COM2, COM3, COM4.
server is the computer on network providing centralized access to data and
copying of the ROM chips of various installed hardware in the RAM between 640K
is a icon which is linked to a program or file
(Single In-line Memory Module)
memory module containing RAM chips for the older AT PCís. there are two types
of SIMMS, 30pin and 72 pin ranging from 1MB to 64MB per module.
new concept in logical storage which is different from partitions.
is the method of making information available on a network.
mini upgrade or a fix to Microsoft product.
(Serial Line Internet Protocol)
older modem communication protocol.
is software to improve the performance of your hard drive by utilizing your RAM
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
protocol for transferring mail from dissimilar operating systems. Usually used
to send the email from your computer to the email server using outlook express..
(Simple Network Management Protocol)
TCP/IP protocol for monitoring your network traffic.
method of extending an simple volume beyond one drive.
SPD Serial Presence Detect
method memory modules identifying themselves to the system when installed.
topology uses a hub to connect all the computers on the network. The access
method on this popular topology is CSMA/CD.
is very fast RAM usually used for cache.
set with parity
method of improving storage speed and redundancy by implementing many drives
with identical information.
is a directory within a directory.
is a 32bit number that is used by routers to separate that network and host
portions of an TCP/IP address.
is a device that is the interface between your computer and the mains and
protects your system against power surges.
is a network segmentation device by using identification number on the network
order and format of typing commands.
method of mass installation using a third party cloning software.
is the file that contains the current system registry
(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
protocol is the standard protocol of the Internet that was created by the
military. This protocol is a routable which identifies all communicating
computers with a unique 32 bit address and also contains a number of sub
protocols such as HTTP, FTP, SMNP, SMTP, etc.
program that allows us to manage all current active tasks.
is a topology, which generates a ring of computers connected together using an
MAU employing the token ring access method.
physical layout for a network.
Thicknet and Thinnet
medium used in the BUS topology.
(Terminate Stay Resident)
TSR command will remain in memory after it has been activated until the system
component of TCP/IP which provides for no graphics bu just commands.
TCP/IP diagnostic tool used to trace the route of a data packet.
medium used in the star topology which incorporates twisted pairs of wires.
(Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter)
chip that converts the synchronous data on the system to asynchronous data
before the data transmission.
(User Datagram Protocol)
is a TCP/IP protocol that is defined as a connectionless protocol. The protocol
does not guarantee data delivery.
method of linking to a network share by suing the computer name and share name\\computername\sharename.
(Upper memory block)
sub sections of free memory which can be utilized for TSRís between 640KB and
(Uninterruptible Power Supply)
is a battery pack designed to avoid a system
switch off in a power outage. This power pack allows the system to shut
method of finding and linking to a web page on the Internet.
(Universal Serial Bus)
is a serial communication device designed to communicate with up to 127 USB
devices. These USB devices include scanners, mouse, external storage etc.
is an option within the administrative tools of windows NT designed to create
users and groups and assign their individual permissions.
is a profile for the user that saves the users personal desktop settings.
file contains the user components of the registry.
Electronics Systems Association)
32bit expansion slot designed by a collaboration of companies.
use of the hard drive as potential RAM
is a program designed to propagate and also cause havoc on a computer.
primitive DOS anti virus program which sits in RAM and monitors the system for
A network that
uses the Internet as a medium
adapter used to produce the graphical images on the screen.
(Wide Are Network)
is a network of networks. A WAN separates these LANís by routers.
is the process of restarting your computer without switching it off. You must
press the Alt+Ctrl+
buttons simultaneously to perform a warm boot.
standard for driver compatibility set in windows98/ME/2000
can use the * as a wildcard to select multiple files.
is the Microsoft browser.
Server (Windows Internet Naming Service)
is a server that contains a database of NetBIOS names and IP addresses.
is the peer the peer environment of Microsoft windows environment.
is the client side machine in a Windows NT environment.
(World Wide Web)
word for the Internet.
Motherboard (Extended Technology)
original IBM design for PCís which used the 8088 processor and 1MB of RAM
Socket (Zero Insertion Force Socket)
is a processor socket which makes the installation of the processor easy.
Bit Recording (LBR)
larger hard drive capacity on the same physical size hard drive by placing more
data on the outer sectors.